Mictlancihuatl is the Aztec goddess of the underworld

Mictlancihuatl is the queen of Mictlan, the underworld of Aztec cosmology. She watches over the bones of the dead and is depicted as a body without flesh with an open jaw who swallows the stars during the day.

The modern representation of Mictlancihuatl is Skull Catrina.

Mictlancihuatl is the wife of Mictlantecuhtli. Together they rule over the afterlife.


Aztec and Christian Heaven and Hell are Opposites

Mictlancihuatl is key to understanding the difference between Aztec and Christian perspectives on death and afterlife.

Mictlan is the place of the afterlife. The Christian perspective imagines Mictlan in the ground like some form of hell.

The Aztec perspective imagines Mictlan more like heaven. Mictlancihuatl swallows the stars during the day and releases them at night. She manages the heavens.


The Borgia Codex

The image is from the Borgia Codex. It is a pre-Columbian Aztec religious manuscript believed to be from the region that is now Puebla, Mexico.

The Aztecs wrote many manuscripts. The conquistadors and Spanish priests destroyed them. Only a handful survived.

The Borgia Codex was discovered in 1805 among the personal things of Italian Cardinal Stefano Borgia. It is now in the Vatican Library.


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